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MOVABLE 

STATIONERY 



Volume 14 
Number 2 

May 

2006 



18 th Century Flap Books for Children: 
Allegorical Metamorphosis and 
Spectacular Transformation 

Jacqueline Reid-Walsh 
Montreal, Canada 

The active reader and the interactive text have been 
present since the earliest days of commercial publishing 
for children. This is evident in didactic texts where ideas 
of education being an active endeavor are applied not only 
to educational toys and games such as "dissected maps" 
(Shefrin, Dissected) but to narratives as well. Flap books 
are a spectacular type of illustrated text that make use of 
various techniques to engage the reader by a multiple 




The Monster of the Woods: A Pantomime. 
London, E. Tringham, 1772. Illustration from the 
collection of the Lilly Library, Indiana University 



presentation of words, images, and the design feature of 
the flap that compels the reader/viewer to engage 
physically with the parts of the book in order to make 
meaning. As a type of movable book, flap books are a 
hybrid artifact that combines aspects of the picture book 
and toy. (Hurst) They were first produced in 1766 by 
Robert Sayer, a well known print and map maker, and 
soon other publishers joined such as the Tringham family 
associated with the history of children's publishing 'Sayer 
first produced religious texts (Speaight 1991) while the 
Tringhams produced moral texts. After 1770 publishers 
turned mainly to theatrical topics. Robert Sayer began the 



trend by having as no. 4 in his series a "spin off" text based 
on David Garrick's long running "Christmas Gambol, after 
the Manner of the Italian Comedy" (1759—) Harlequin's 
Invasion: A New Pantomime, on Sept. 7 1770. (Speaight 71) 

These books were inexpensive commodities. Priced at "6 

d plain, Is coloured," the prices corresponded to full price 

and half price of inexpensive theater tickets. The coloring 

was performed assembly line fashion by groups of poor 

children who would paint the images 

piecemeal. (Montanaro) 2 The books form part of the 

widening of print culture in this period, that according to 

John Brewer was possible due both to rising literacy rateand 

to the removal of restraints imposed by the crown and the 

conservative books sellers. (169) 3 Consequently more 

varied reading practices were possible, some books such as 

religious texts receiving a close scrutiny and repeated 

rereading while others being read in a cursory way, leafed 

through or scanned (as Frances Boscawen put it "not to 

read strictly, but feuiller." (Brewer 169) 

In this paper I discuss two paired examples of flap books 

published by the Tringhams or Sayer in the Cotsen 

Children's Library that show the shift from religious and 

moral education to theatrical play. I briefly analyze them in 

terms of their formal structure and design features that 

invite an interactive engagement by the implied 

reader/ viewer, (from Iser) Each kind of book also has 

different type of address to the reader so invites a different 

type of engagement with the text, either a slow scrutiny or 

a quick glance. The two earliest books are published by the 

Tringhams, The moralist: or entertaining emblems for the 

instruction and amusement of young ladies (Wm. Tringham 

April 1768) and A new Book of Emblems of the Different 

Diversions from Infancy to Manhood (E. Tringham, Henry 

Wass, and J,ohn> Merry, June 23 rd 1770).These are 

allegorical books of admonition and moral instruction that 

I consider to be derived from the emblem book, itself an 

interactive text. By contrast the two theatrically based books 

both feature a folk character of magic and wisdom Mother 

Shipton. Mother Shipton (Wm. Tringham Henry Wass, <J> 

Merry, L. Tomlinson in February 1771) and the I s ' part 

Mother Shipton Or harlequin in Despair published by 

Robert Sayer in March 1771.1 consider these narrative texts 

to be "cross-over" texts adapted from pantomime 

performances where the audience has a participatory and 

critical role. The first pair of books is directed towards a 

gendered readership of middle class children. 



Continued on page 2 



The Movable Book Society 

ISSN: 1097-1270 
Movable Stationery is the quarterly publication of The 
Movable Book Society. Letters and articles from members 
on relevant subjects are welcome. The index to past issues 
o/Movable Stationery is available at: 

http://www. rci.rutgers. edu/~montanar/mbs. html 
The annual membership fee for the society is $20.00. 
For more information contact: Ann Montanaro, The 
Movable Book Society, P.O. Box 11654, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey 08906 USA. 

Daytime telephone: 732-445-5896 

Evening telephone: 732-247-6071 

e-mail: montanar@rci. rutgers. edu 

Fax: 732-445-5888 

The deadline for the next issue is August 15. 



18' h Century Flap Books, Continued from page 1 

They do not tell a narrative but present brief vignettes 
across the span from childhood to adulthood. On a literal 
level they evoke an affluent late 18 th century girl or boy's 
domestic life, but on the allegorical level they reveal key 
assumptions about gendered moral education. For 
example, the schoolgirl is shown with an array of toys 
ranging from bat and ball, ball and stick, cards, puppet of 
Punch on a stick to a fashion doll, while the young boy is 
shown riding a rocking horse, using a bow and arrows, 




The Elopement: A New Harlequin Entertainment. London. Robt. 

Sayer, 1771. Illustration from the collection of the 

Lilly Library, Indiana University 



playing hopscotch, skipping rope and playing with 
marbles. Some of the toys and activities such as ball and 
stick or marbles are traditional activities, as those depicted 
in Newbery's A Pretty Little Pocket Book, while others 
such as the elaborate rocking horse and doll are tied to the 
emerging commercial toys market. (Burton) The gendered 
depiction of toys is fascinating to see: both the differences, 
for example, hopscotch and skipping shown here as a 



boy's activity are now associated exclusively with girls, and 
the similarities, for instance, the girl is shown with the 
fashion doll and elaborate wooden horse with the boy. 4 

At the same time, it is apparent that the activities are not 
only representational but allegorical. 5 The books adapt the 
ancient typos of the "ages of man or woman" to provide a 
chronological structure but they do so in ideologically 
different ways. In The Moralist the figures ages from 
girlhood to old age, but the logic of the allegory is a unitary 
and timeless one in that the girl is presented as the 
forerunner of the woman, and her childish misbehavior 
ultimately foreshadows a shameful life and death. The heavy 
handed moralizing recalls the conduct books of the period, 
adapted to a young girl readership so it is a kind of 
miniature "graphic" conduct book. The determinist message 
is unremitting, as one of the final morals states: "Ye fair be 
careful what you do,/ And view the Plant before you rue." By 
contrast, the of ages of man in A new Book of Emblems of 
the Different Diversions from Infancy to Manhood is used as 
an ordering principle in a morally neutral way for the infant 
only ages to young manhood when he is choosing a bride. 

The emblem book format also influences the design of 
the books and the interactive role of the implied viewer. In 
appearance each page with the flaps unfolded loosely follows 
the three part structure of the emblem book since the 
illustration is sandwiched in between a verse above and the 
moral below. In each case the illustration is framed by the 
lesson to be taught and a slow and thoughtful three part 
reading strategy is implied — read the verse, look at picture, 
read the moral. Since the flap overlays the emblematic 
images and must be raised in order to be seen, this 
requirement invites a doubling of this effect. When the 
reader lifts the flap up or down another three-fold set of 
verse, illustration and moral is revealed. The verse 
accompanying the illustrations provides an explication of the 
emblematic significance to the reader. In each case, the 
relation of a one to one correspondence between significant 
image and moral or religious interpretation is maintained. 
The placement of the images on the flaps is such that a 
reader is impelled to turn the flaps out of curiosity to see the 
changes or results in the character. Since the act of turning 
the flap up or down can effectively depict different ages in 
the same figure, it seems that the reader is involved in the 
formation of the depiction, creating a close relation between 
the reader/viewer and the subject. 

The most striking example of the adaptation of the 
emblem image occurs is the final sequence of The Moralist 
with the representation of the disembodied eye. On the 
surface, this draws upon the emblematic convention of the 
disjecta member (dismembered legs, arms, hearts, ears, 
tongues and eyes) to represent religious fervor. (Bath 168) 

Continued on page 7 



Elizabeth Wessels, 1933 - 2005 

Reprinted from The State, Columbia, 
South Carolina. December 30, 2005. 

Elizabeth Wessels, a native of Great Britain, brought 
an enthusiasm for the arts, rare books, herbs, and letters 
to the editor when she moved to Columbia [South 
Carolina] nearly 30 years ago. Wessels, who died Monday 
[December 26, 2005] at age 72, was a volunteer with arts 
groups including the Columbia Music Festival Association 
and the Columbia Lyric Opera, and was district director of 
the Metropolitan Opera National Council District 
Auditions, working with aspiring young singers. "She was 
one of the major players in the arts," said John Whitehead, 
director of the Columbia Music Festival Association. "It's 
really a great loss for us." 

Wessels, known to her friends as Lize, frequently 
appeared on local TV touting the benefits of herbs, giving 
her the nickname "The Herb Lady." 

She wrote frequent letters to the editor that ranged 
from humorous musings on global warming and the 
correct way to refer to Sir Alec Guinness to the courtesy of 
London cabbies. She described in one how, after a ride 
with a Nigerian cab driver in Chicago, she had concluded 
that the term African- American was divisive. 

She often took The State to task in her letters. "Wake 
up, editors! The complacency of the U.S. superpower 
status is about to be shattered by a new and powerful 
Europe, and America will be left languishing between the 
Atlantic and Pacific," she wrote in 1991, complaining 
about the lack of international news in the paper. The 
same year, she described the writing in The State as "a sea 
of ignorance and split infinitives." William Starr, former 
cultural affairs editor of The State, described Wessels as 
"contentious." "She argued with me over just about every 
music review I wrote for 20 years, no matter whether she 
liked what I wrote or detested it," he said in an e-mail 
from Atlanta, where he is director of the Georgia Center 
for the Book. "She just liked to talk about music because 
she was so passionate about it. . . . She was knowledgeable 
and opinionated. In everything that she did, she was 
never, ever boring." 

Of a privileged background, Wessels grew up in a 
manor house and attended boarding school in England 
and finishing school in Switzerland. After a world tour, 
she completed business school in London. She came to the 
United States for a two- week stay in 1961 and never left. 
She settled in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., where she married 
Walter Hammond Wessels; they moved to Columbia in 
1976. Walter died in 2001. 

In 1986, Wessels started Bookfinders International and 
Eccentricities, specializing in old and rare books. It is in 
the City Market Antique Mall on Gervais Street and is 
expected to be taken over by another local book dealer. 



Remembering Lize Wessels 

Ann Montanaro 

East Brunswick, New Jersey 

Lize and I were telephone friends long before we ever 
met in person and over the years I became accustomed to 
her informal, abrupt conversational manner. She never 
began a call with "hello," she just started into a discussion. 
But her distinctive English accent left no doubt about who 
was on the other end of the line. She loved to tell stories 
about customers and gossip about what was going on in the 
world of pop-ups and she always took full responsibility for 
the formation of The Movable Book Society. 

In the late 1980s I occasionally bought pop-up books 
from Lize and she invariably asked me many questions as 
part of the phone transaction. I told her about my collecting 
interests, my family, and the fact that I had recently signed 
a contract to prepare a bibliography of pop-up books. 
Throughout the years I spent preparing the first 
bibliography, Lize called me periodically to check on my 
progress and to remind me to keep working because she had 
been promoting the book. When it was finally published, she 
sent me a list of her pop-up book customers so that I could 
send flyers to each of them announcing the book. As book 
sales increased, I began receiving comments from readers 
who were both appreciative of the work and who questioned 
why titles were omitted or overlooked. Lize encouraged me 
to bring these collectors together to share their knowledge, 
interests, and enthusiasm. When The Movable Book Society 
was formed in 1993 she was one of the founding members 
and she attended the first conference in New Jersey in 1996. 

Lize and I finally met in person in 1995. We were both 
going to be in Chicago attending the American Booksellers 
(ABA) Convention and we set a time to meet at Printer's 
Row. While seated on a convention bus, I recognized her 
voice as she talked to another rider and I made my way to 
her. I greeted her saying "I'm Ann Montanaro." To which 
she responded in a louder-than-expected voice, "No, you're 
not!" She continued, "You're not old enough to be a widow 
and you certainly are not Italian!" It was her directness that 
was most appealing to me. She repeatedly stared at me while 
we visited and shopped that day, storing a newly-revised 
picture of me in her head. 

Lize's catalog The Modern Pop-up: 1930 - 1994, issued 
under her trade name Bookfinders International, 
documented almost 600 pop-up books with color 
photographs of each cover. The books sold well and the 
catalog itself became a collector's item. Despite the success 
of the catalog, pop-ups were only a temporary sideline for 
her and she did not actively seek pop-ups after the titles in 
the catalog were sold. She had a following of loyal customers 
who gave her lists of authors and subjects and she searched 



for books for them both in the U.S. and in England during 
her annual trips. 

Her health began to decline after her husband's death 
and travel became increasingly difficult. However, her 
love of books and stories never failed. She was a good 
friend and mentor and she will be missed. 



Birmingham Exhibition Postponed 

Sadly, the proposed pop-up exhibition and conference 
announced for 2007 in England have had to be postponed. 
The Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery has been 
unable to raise the necessary financing for the exhibition 
and Mike Simkin and Rosie Temperley have, as yet, been 
unable to find an alternative location. Therefore, they have 
"put on ice" all of the arrangements for the event. 



Sabuda Traveling Exhibit 




"Robert Sabuda: 
Travels in Time and 
Space" will be at the 
Newark New Jersey 
Public Library from July 
3 through September 8, 
2006. Robert is 
scheduled to speak at 
the Library while the 
exhibition is there. See 
the Newark Library 
website for the date 
<www.npl.org> 



This traveling exhibit may be on display at a location 
near you in the coming two years. It is sponsored by the 
National Center for Children's Illustrated Literature 
(NCCIL), a non-profit organization incorporated in the 
state of Texas in 1997. The NCCIL provides recognition 
of the artistic achievements of illustrators and gallery 
exhibitions of their works. Additionally, the NCCIL 
designs educational programming that relates to 
illustrations in children's literature in order to stimulate 
creativity, promote literacy and to increase appreciation 
for art. 

The other exhibition locations for 2006 - 2007 are: 

Maricopa County Library District, Phoenix, AZ - April 

10, 2006- June 16,2006. 

Public Library of Cincinnati & Hamilton Cty, Cincinnati, 

OH - September 25, 2006 - December 31, 2006. 

Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City, UT - April 8, 

2007 - September 9, 2007. 



Sharing Pop-up Books 

Lorraine Conway 
Easton, Connecticut 

Pop-ups and movable books of all types provide an ideal 
collectible for sharing with children and "young" people of 
all ages. They are easily portable, engaging, and present 
many varied and unusual topics including folktales, 
holidays, humor and the wonders of science. It doesn't take 
much effort to get the attention of any audience! 

Over the twenty years I taught 10-12 year olds in a 
gifted/talented program I often brought some of my favorites 
to school. If we were involved in a unit on art, I brought in 
my M.C. Escher, Maxfield Parrish and Norman Rockwell 
pop-ups. Mythology, architecture, and storytelling likewise 
provided a chance to share my collection. 

After more than 38 years in the classroom, I retired last 
June (although I prefer being called an RV teacher - 
revitalized and roving). In addition to having more time to 
visit the 2 1 grandchildren my husband and I share, there are 
other opportunities for a "kid fix" and pop-up fun whenever 
I miss the classroom. This past week I spent several hours 
with children in K-3 classrooms in an urban school. Their 
eyes were on me the whole time and I was reminded of the 
poem Barter by Sara Teasdale ..."and children's faces 
looking up holding wonder like a cup." 

However, I have also begun to make hour-long 
presentations for adults entitled "Books You Won't Find in 
the Library." Our town librarian for adult services hosts a 
monthly meeting for her colleagues in Fairfield County 
(CT). After my presentation, I was surprised to learn that 
with the exception of Robert Sabuda no one was familiar 
with any other paper engineers. An all-around favorite 
proved to be the new One Red Dot. 

After a second 
presentation that evening for 
library patrons, I was asked 
to do a program for a 
women's church group. 
However, this time I decided 
to ask for an honorarium of 
S25-50 which I would 
immediately donate to the 
Joslin Center for Juvenile 
Diabetes. One of our twin 
granddaughters was diagnosed with diabetes last year at the 
age of four. This proposal was instantly accepted by the 
church group. It was again a delightful evening and I was 
able to use my penchant for collecting into an opportunity to 
support a worthy and close-to-the heart cause. 




When I made presentations for an adult audience I 
could add in other books from my collection including 
Pop-up Book of Nightmares/Phobias, Meno-Pops, and the 
Naughty Nineties. But the wonders of paper engineering 
in One Red Dot has most likely increased sales on the 
Amazon list! 

So all you lovers of these enchanting books, find your 
own way to share. Like the Mastercard ad - some things 
are priceless and sharing pop-ups is over the top! 

Save the Dates 

The 12 Ih Annual New Jersey Book Arts Symposium 
will be held at Rutgers, The State University of New 
Jersey at the Newark Dana Library on Friday, November 
3, 2006. This year's theme is "Flaps, Folds, Figures, and 
Flash: Books with Movable Parts." Among the speakers 
will be Maria Pisano and Debra Weier, book artists and 
members of The Movable Book Society. For more 
information contact this year's program chair Ann 
Montanaro at montanar@rci.rutgers.edu. 

The 9" 1 Biannual Pyramid Atlantic Book Arts Fair & 
Conference is scheduled for November 18-19, 2006. It will 
take place in downtown Silver Spring, Maryland. For 
more information call 301-608-9101, ext. 101 or email 
info@pyramid-atlantic.org. 



Movable Stamps 

Marian Nelson 
New York, NY 

I read with interest the article in the February issue by 
Theo Gielen about "movable stamps." The Dutch postal 
service may be the first with actual stamp movement, but 
they are not the first with holographic postage. 

In 1989, the United States Postal Service issued an 
unusual pre-stamped No. 10 envelope on which the 
"stamp" is a holographic image. "USA 29" is printed to 
the left of the stamp block. The stamp block itself is cut 
out and a hologram pasted inside the envelope. The 
hologram shows a near planet (moon?), a space station 
with a space ship docking, astronauts, and distant planet 
(Earth?), and stars. Although the scene does not move and 
it isn't strictly a stamp, as it is already pasted into the 
envelope, the colors change as light hits the hologram and 
it is three-dimensional. Considering this was done 17 
years ago, I think it beats the Dutch in this category! 

There may have been different envelopes/stamps in this 
series. I only know about this because I needed No. 10 
envelopes at the time. I can't believe I actually used these 
for mailing! 



Books and Collections for Sale 



My 

5#HH2LIGIG EAIB 

BOOK. 




I recently acquired a 
book that I have not seen 
before and I am offering it 
for sale. The book is My 
Wltirligig Fair Book by Ruth 
Stemm Morgan, published 
in 1929 by The Buzza Co. 
(The Gordon Volland 
Publications, created at 
Craftacres by The Buzza Co, 
Minneapolis, MN.) The 
book is 11" high x 12 'A" 
wide. 



All the action in the book takes place at a 1920s fair and 
overall it is in very good condition with vivid illustrations in 
red, yellow, blue, and green. The seven pages include wheels 
and other movables, some attached with rivets. This is an 
extremely unusual movable, quite lovely and rare and except 
for tightening/repair of rivets it is in excellent working 
order. Please contact me if you would like to see other scans 
or would like information about purchasing the book. 

Elaine Woodford 
POBox 1785 
Venice, FL 34284 
woodfordbks@comcast.ne 
941-488-7325 

Sinski Collection 

Books from the collection of the late Jim Sinski, former 
member of The Movable Book Society, are being offered for 
sale on eBay by his friend Alex Britain. Some of Jim's books 
will be donated to Pratt but about 1 ,000 will eventually be 
for sale. They range from antique books to contemporary 
books and are in several languages. If there is a particular 
book you are interested in purchasing, contact: 

Alex Britain 
2216E. WaverlySt. 
Tucson, AZ 85719 
yarrow22 1 6@aol.com 

Contemporary Pop-ups 

Judith Hoffberg has clients who have a collection of over 
320 pop-up books collected primarily in from the 1970s to 
the 1990s. They are interested in finding a librarian or 
collector who is interested in a ready-made collection. For 
more information contact: 

Judith Hoffberg 
umbrella@ix.netcom.com 



Hallmark Pop-up Decorations 

Ann Montanaro 



During the 1960s, 
Hallmark Cards produced 
three dozen or more pop-up 
decorations. These large, 
single card pop-ups folded 
in half and opened to a 
standing display typically 
21 -inches wide, 121/2- 
inches deep and often 12 or 
more inches high. Most of 
pop-ups were glued to stiff 
cardboard covers that were 



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Hallmark "Pirate Ship'' 



printed on both sides in a distinctive small blue and white 
pattern. The title, publisher's logo, and place of 
publication were printed on the envelope. Unfortunately, 
many of the decorations are now only available without an 
envelope so it is difficult to determine the "title" or other 
information about them. 



The pop-up 
decorations, much like 
the Hallmark cards of the 
period, had appealing 
characters with scenes 
printed in bright clean 
colors. The illustrations 
clearly conveyed the 
purpose of the pop-up. 
Most of them were 
seasonal displays for 
holidays, but others were 
designed to be used for 
birthday, wedding, and 
baby parties. 




Hallmark "Bunny Workshop" 



Hallmark marketed the decorations with suggestions 
for their use printed on the back of the envelope. These 
included: "holiday tables, hall stands, schoolroom display, 
mantelpieces, bookshelves, children's room, party prizes, 
or gifts." The decorating and party ideas reflect the period 
of the decorations. "Winter Wonderland," for example, is 
suggested to be used for a candlelight buffet or a "Stir 
Party." The later is described as "a ladies' party in the 
daytime, or a couples' party in the evening. Guests are 
invited to come cook Christmas candies, cookies, or fruit 
cakes. The hostess provides all ingredients and cooking 
utensils. At a mixed party, let men and women or girls 
and boys draw for partners. Hostess gives assignments and 
all go to work. Guests take home the fruits of their labors 
in Hallmark napkins which the hostess provides." The 
pop-up decorations were part of a full marketing plan that 
also included a check-list of related Hallmark products to 
use with the centerpiece: invitations, table covers, plate, 




Hallmark "Church Scene 



place mats, napkins, cups, coasters, tallies, matches, etc. 

These large pop-ups 
illustrations were used for 
more than table 
decorations. In my own 
collection I have a copy 
of "Toy Shoppe," a 
decoration with Santa 
reading a letter while 
standing outside of his 
house-shaped toy shop. 
This piece was sent to me 

in the 1 980s by Howard Lohnes with this note "one of some 
30 pop-up centerpieces done in Japan before handwork was 
restrictive there. This series, as well as many, many 
mechanical cards was negotiated by Wally Hunt - as our 
overseas arm in paper engineered products." Mr. Lohnes, 
who worked for Hallmark, also sent me a pop-up of the same 
size that he marked in pencil "done for a record album cover 
insert or attachment." Stamped on the face of the pop-up is 
"Printed in Colombia. All Rights Reserved. Columbia House 
Division." This same pop-up was also sold in an envelope as 
a holiday decoration called "Carolers." 

The Hallmark pop-up centerpiece "Family Tree" is one 
of the few I have found that differs in size and style from 
others of the period. It was "Made in U.S.A." and was 
probably produced at a later date since it was offered for sale 
for S2.50 whereas most of the others sold for $ 1 .25 or $ 1 .50. 
"Family Tree" is on a card base 8-inch es by 1 2-inches. From 
the center each of the sides of the card fold down and the 
double-sided center display stands 1 2-inches high. On one 
side of the tree there is a ribbon printed with the text "A 
Baby is Joy" and on the other side a the text reads "A 
Mother is Love." 

I also have six pop-up decorations issued by Ambassador 
Cards. According to their web page, "Hallmark began 
offering the Ambassador brand in 1959 as a choice for 
smaller card departments and for retailers who choose to 
discount and do not differentiate their stores by focusing on 
recognized brands." The Ambassador decorations are similar 
in size and quality to the Hallmark decorations. 

Pop-up decorations have been identified that were 
issued by two other companies: Westclox Division General 
Time Corp and Vista Marketing, Inc. The Vista Marketing 
winter scene has only been viewed as an online image where 
it was described as being 24-inches long, 1 2-inches wide, 
and 10-inches high. From the picture, it appears to be the 
same pop-up as the aforementioned "Carolers." 

If others have pop-up decorations in their collections, I 
would appreciate knowing about them. 



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J? 

THE 6th MO\^BLE BOOK 

SOCIETY CONFERENCE 

Chicago, Illinois 
September 14 - 16,2006 

From Thursday evening through Saturday night attendees can: 

Make a movable book 

Experience the journey of a collector 

Focus on old, rare mechanisms 

Identify paper engineers throughout history 

Be inspired by modern masters 

Learn about tunnel books 

Discover the pop-ups of Spain 

Meet new friends 

and 

Share pop-ups and movable books 



Conference speakers include: 

Andy Baron, Carol Barton, Chuck Fischer, Frank Gagliardi, 
Emily Martin, Ana Ortega Palacios, Matthew Reinhart, 
Ellen Rubin, Robert Sabuda, Larry Seidman, Paul Wehr 



A registration form and complete program are available at: 
http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~montanar/mbs.html 



18'" Century Flap Books, Continued from page 2 

Yet the context uses the conventional image of the 
intellect, the disembodied eye, in a fashion contrary to that 
of religious contemplation. Here is the text: 

The cave of wretchedness behold, 

An object tatter'd poor and cold, 

But yet behold above from thence, 

The watchful Eye of providence. 

Moral 

Let not one despair of Heaven 

But all repent and be forgiven. 

The image shows a girl in a cave with her hands 
clasped praying. The eye of providence is drawn in the top 
of the cave; and around it is written "repent and be 
forgiven." 

The drawing of the eye recalls that of emblem books 
such as "The meditative eye of the mind" in George 
Wither's Emblems (1635). Yet the context of the eye is 
altered significantly in order to relay a different message 
to the girl reader: the eye is drawn not as the subject's 
organ linked to the eternal power of a radiant God but is 
an external one, unattached to the girl, depicting the eye 
of God watching and judging her ill behavor. The 
disembodied eye is thereby used to transmit its message 
through a dire prediction of the future for vain and 
frivolous girls. At the same time, this disembodied 
watching eye could be interpreted as a literal 
representation of the metaphorical social eye prevalent in 
18" 1 century conduct books where the "eye the world" 
observes and judges the behavior and deportment of young 
ladies. These popular books, of which the Rev. James 
Fordyce's Sermons to Young Women (1765) is the best 
known example, were directed towards a middle class 
adolescent girl of about sixteen or seventeen years of age, 
who was about to make her social entrance in to society. 
In this public arena every aspect of her appearance and 
performance as a young lady was always subjected to 
severe public scrutiny as if she were a moral text to 
read.. (Reid-Walsh 217) 

In each case, the potential of the flap book design is 
used to connect the surprise revealed with the unfolding of 
the flap with the idea of emblems being puzzles that have 
to be deciphered. The emphasis is on the contrast between 
the resulting pairs of images such as old woman to girl, 
infant cradle to boy's rocking horse not on the act of 
transformation itself. The effect is startling in each case: 
one creates a disturbing sense of a fusion of time in the 
female experience reinforced by the allegorical one to one 
logic whereby a girl is an old woman and the reverse. The 
other creates a charming image of growth from infancy to 
boyhood through youth to young manhood by the linking 





■■■;- ~ 



\4 a; 1%-S-m JPillill*. %Mt 



The Witches, or, Harlequin 's trip to Naples. 

London, H. Roberts: L. Tomlinson, 1772. 

Lilly Library, Indiana University 



of the growing boy with key items of material culture. In 
each logic whereby a girl is an old woman and the reverse. 
The other creates a charming image of growth from infancy 
to boyhood through youth to young manhood by the linking 
of the growing boy with key items of material culture. In 
each book the metamorphosis that is achieved emphasizes 
the static quality of the resulting image. This stasis is in 
keeping with the emblem book tradition whereby the texts 
are intended to be scrutinized carefully. 

While the texts of admonition are intended for a sex- 
specific readership, the texts of recreation tend to addressed 
to youth generally or to an unspecified audience. These texts 
are "of play" in a double sense in that not only are they for 
amusement but based on theatrical performance. These are 
based on the harlequinade sections of a pantomime and 
feature the conventional commedia del 'arte characters of 
Harlequin, Columbine, Pantaloon, and Clown. The youthful 
protagonists in a romantic love plot and contain material 
that would be popular with a youth audience analogously to 
the pantomime itself, as John O'Brien notes in Harlequin 
Britain (2004). 



Because the plot of a harlequinade is highly 
conventional both theater audience and book reader know 
the outcome. Accordingly, in each mode of storytelling the 
focus is not on the "what" of the narrative but on the 
"how" and this is where the designers of stage or book put 
their imaginative efforts. In terms of book design the texts 
are interactive: in order to move the action of the plot 
along the reader/viewer has to lift the flaps in a certain 
way. The reader may be addressed by the narrator of the 
text and asked to aid Harlequin in his endeavors to win 
Columbine. By these means the reader becomes engaged 
in the storytelling or in the performing of the plot. 
Visually the books suggest an adaptation of stage design 
and theatrical methods in their design. This includes a 
general suggestion of the characters as performers on a 
stage, analogies between the flap and the mechanics of 
scene change, and, on occasion, the act of lifting the flap 
will even create an illusion of movement. While the texts 
of moral and religious instruction employ the metaphor of 
allegorical metamorphosis in their content and visual 
design, the texts of play use images of antic 
transformation to propel their narratives along, as do the 
pantomimes themselves. (Frow, Mayer, O'Brien) 

In both versions of Mother Shipton the old woman who 
has the gift of prophecy is presented as Harlequin's 
Mother. (Shefrin note) She serves the function of the 
"benevolent agent" in the pantomime and gives harlequin 
his magic bat to aid him in his attempt to gain Columbine. 
(Frow 65) The Tringham text focuses equally on the 
words and illustrations in a manner suggesting later 
picture book narratives. By contrast in the Sayer text the 
words are sparer; the emphasis is on the images and their 
layout, similar to later comic books narratives. 




[Benjamin Sands). Metamorphosis; or, A Transformation 
of Pictures, with Poetical Explanations, for the Amusement 

of Young Persons. Philadelphia, Printed and Sold by J. 

Rakestraw, 1818. Illustration from the collection of the 
Rutgers University Libraries 



The book design of the Tringham Mother Shipton suggests 
that of a stage with the human action occurring in the lower 
flap, while the scenery occupies the top. If the page 
represents an actual stage the viewer's eye is fixed a mid 
point in the theater. The shifts required for the 
transformation scenes are concentrated in the top flap. For 
instance, in the second sequence the scene is set outside 
Mother Shipton's shop with her distinctive hunch back body 
and tall conical hat reproduced as a sign outside her shop. 
When the top flap is lifted the scenery has begun to change 
to another location. The verse states how Mother Shipton 
gives a powerful sword to her son that will "Any kind of 
thing transform" and ends with narrator's comment "Turn 
down & View the Quick effect." This stresses the power of 
the visual transformations Harlequin will be able to perform. 
The address to the reader also specifies the speed of the 
change. On the bottom flap, the complication is stated: "But 
Opposite the Matter scan,/ You'll find there's naught Secure 
with Man." But this address may also serve another 
function. While "scan" is used as a synonym of "read" in 
order to fit the rhyme scheme, here the emphasis is of the 
speed of the transformation. By implication the diction of the 
text is encouraging a certain type of rapid reading, or 
scanning that approximates the quick pacing of the 
pantomime action. It suggests a speedy and playful type of 
reading that John Brewer has noted was part of a change in 
reading practices in the 1 8 lh century. 

Both stage design and reader participation are 
exemplified in the final sequence of the harlequinade. The 
verse states, 

A Coalpit's Mouth you here behold, 
Which Harlequin went down I'm told 
His Mother, and fair Columbine, 
You See to follow him incline; 
They'll quickly vanish from the Sight; 
Turn down, and See if they go right. 

While the text encourages the reader to move forward to 
discover the conclusion, and to assess the quality of the 
stagecraft, the illustrations show the means by which the 
stage action is achieved. The top flap shows a pit or well 
with a rope on big spit and in the bottom half Mother 
Shipton and Columbine standing part way down in 
rectangular holes. Despite the scenery suggesting the out of 
doors, it is obviously a theatrical trap door on a stage 
through which they are sinking. The use of floor traps, here 
a grave trap, was one of the popular mechanisms for moving 
people through different levels. (Frow 147 ff) That the 
Tringham harlequinade shows the reader/viewer the actual 
stage devices in operation reinforces the idea that the text 
was based on an actual performance as George Speaight 
believes. (1991, 76) In the pantomimes much of the 
creativity in the performance was supplied by the stage 
designers and trick designers, and indeed, their names were 



usually included on the theater bills and programs along 
with those of the actors, while a playwright's was not 
(www.peopleplay.uk). Much of the pleasure in watching 
the pantomime was to see how the transformations and 
tricks were achieved. By inviting the reader/viewer to 
discover if the traps or tricks are working, the narrator 
reinforces the sense of being a knowing onlooker and 
participating in a theatrical experience. 

The Sayer Mother Shipton Or harlequin in Despair is 
more visually complex than the Tringham harlequinade. 6 
The etchings are sophisticated and detailed, recalling 
theatrical prints in miniature. Due to the dominance of the 
images in relation to the scant verse, the immediate 
impression is of a visual event, and the placement of the 
caption above the initial image in a sequence reinforces 
the impression of a play script. With the rare exception, 
and this is for a specific effect, the bodies of the harlequin 
and the other characters are placed directly over the break 
produced by the closed flaps so the main figures occupy 
both halves of the page. In comparison with the figures in 
the Tringham harlequinade the figures are larger so the 
reader/viewer has a closer vantage point on the characters 
and can see details of facial gestures and bodily attitude. 
If this vantage point is compared to that of a theatrical 
spectator, it is that of a person near the stage. 

Because the figure (usually Harlequin) lies over the 
break lifting the flaps creates an impression of a 
transformation being effected. The figure of Harlequin 
becomes animated, as in later cartoon illustration. The 
careful overlaying and underlying of the figures in 
dramatic postures may suggest motion. On occasion, when 
turning the flap up or down the effect is of a single 
movement similar to that later achieved in multiple ways 
in a flip book, which to me suggests a type of pre-cinema 
effect. The flaps are then a space for depicting significant 
plot action and suggesting motion. 

For example, the narrative begins with a despondent 
Harlequin who has decided to kill himself out of 
unrequited love for Columbine: The illustration shows 
harlequin on a rock by a river with swans and there are 
grazing animals and a mill behind. He is stretching out 
towards the water. When the flap is lifted in the 
underlying illustration due to the exact placement of the 
figures of Harlequin directly beneath one another it seems 
that his body has been shifted away from the water. There 
is now a barrier between him and the water, and an owl 
and tower are behind him. The verse reads, 

Says Harly in a fright what's here 
This is some wizards Trade o 
The River which did run so clear 
Is now a Pallisado 
How can such Contradictions be 
Why turn it down & then you'll see. 



Significantly it is the participation of the reader by 
swiftly turning the flaps that makes the transformation with 
the illusion of movement possible. 

Notes: 

1 . The Tringhams also produced books with E. Newbery (the 
widow of John Newbery's nephew Francis in 1782 (Shefrin 
note); O'Malley 107. 

2. These prices would have corresponded to the price of an 
evening out at a popular entertainment, the admission to 
most pleasure gardens and the cheapest theater seats being 
1 shilling which was cut after the second act to 6s. This half 
price admission was roughly equivalent to the price of two 
quarts of ale. Accordingly, this would be within the limits of 
an artisan earning between 40-60 pounds a year. (Brewer 
1991.92-93,351) 

3. According to John Brewer literacy rates were by 1750 
male 60%, female 40%, elite all literate, shopkeeps 95%, 
town people higher than laborers (167-9). He notes that the 
Licensing act had lapsed in 1695, the copyright act of 1709, 
the decision against perpetual copyright in 1774 (133). 

4. Actually, the history of the rocking horse is suggested in 
the transformation scene from cradle to rocking horse in A 
New Book of Emblems. In The Rocking Horse: A History of 
Rocking Toy Horses by Patricia Mullins she states there is a 
link between the construction of 17 lh century cradles that 
rocked on two boards carved a the bottom and early rocking 
horses called board sided rocking horses that similarly 
rocked on two carved boards (24). 

5. As a product of European Renaissance culture, emblem 
books drew upon the fine arts, the decorative arts and the art 
of rhetorical invention. Each emblem consists ofboth textual 
and pictorial elements, forming a bi-medial art form that 
was attractive to a wide audience of different classes and 
educational background (Luijtan et al). Emblem books 
covered a wide range of topics but were allegorical in theme 
and, in England, of two main types, the moralizing emblem 
and the religious or meditative emblem (Bath 3-8). Emblem 
scholars today consider emblem books to be interactive, 
multimedia texts, in light of how one emblem book writer 
Henry Hawkins (1634) described them: "If you eye wel and 
mark these silent poesies, give ear to these speaking 
pictures" (4, cited in Bath 53). They form a kind of puzzle 
or pictorial enigma, the aspects of enigma and resolution 
typically employing a tripartite structure of motto, image and 
text with the relation of the picture to the sententious motto 
being explained in the proceeding epigram. One emblem 
project describes the reading and viewing process in the 
following way: An emblem book represents a particular kind 
of reading. Unlike today, the eye is not intended to move 
rapidly from page to page. The emblem is meant to arrest 
the sense, to lead into the text, to the richness of its 



associations. An emblem is something like a riddle, a 
"hieroglyph" in the Renaissance vocabulary -- 
..."Harwood et al ). 

Visually, the typical three-part structure of motto at the 
top of the page, symbolic illustration below this, and a 
verse application underneath provides a striking and 
distinctive format on the page that indeed arrests the eye. 
A number of typical motifs would recur such as the 
depiction of homely activities, including children's 
activities, and the use of religious conventions such as the 
disjecta member (dismembered legs, arms, hearts, ears, 
tongues and eyes) to represent intense religious belief 
(Bath 168). The images would be recognizable on the 
literal level, so the difficulty would be in interpreting the 
allegorical dimension. 

6. This is an extremely rare item as noted by the original 
curator at Princeton who purchased it. Indeed George 
Speaight in his 1991 article in Theatre Notebook in his 
discussion of several Mother Shipton harlequinade flap 
books and one stage performance states he has not been 
able to locate this text. 

Works cited 

Bath, Michael. Speaking Pictures: English Emblem Books 
and Renaissance Culture. London, Longman, 1994. 

Brewer, John. The Pleasures of the Imagination: English 
Culture in the Eighteenth Century. New York, Farrar, 
Straus, Giroux, 1997. 

Burton, Anthony. Children 's Pleasures: Books, Toys and 
Games from the Bethnal Green Museum of Childhood. 
London, V & A Publications, 1996. 

Frow, Gerald. "Oh, Yes It Is!" A History of Pantomime. 
London, British Broadcasting Corp., 1985. 

Hurst, Clive. Early Children's Books in the Bodleian 
Library: An Exhibition: 25 September 1995-20 January 
1996. Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1995. 

Iser, Wolfgang. The Implied Reader: Patterns of 
Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. 
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1974. 

Mayer, David. Harlequin in His Element: The English 
Pantomime, 1806-1836. Cambridge, MA, Harvard 
University Press, 1969. 

Montanaro, Ann. "A Concise History of Pop-up and 
Movable Books." Pop-up peek, push, pull, scratch, sniff, 
slide, spin, lift, look, listen, raise, lower, unfold, turn, 
open, close: An exhibition of movable books and 
Ephemera from the Collection of Geraldine Roberts 
Lebowitz: May 31-September 15, 2001. Ft. Lauderdale, 
FL, Bienes Center for the Literary Arts, 200 1 . 

PeopleplayUK. Theatre History online. London: Theatre 
Museum. <cited December 30, 2004> Available from the 



(http://www.peopleplayuk.org/default.php). 

O'Brien, John. Harlequin Britain. Pantomime and 
Entertainment, 1690-1760. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 
2004. 

Reid- Walsh, Jacqueline. '"She learned Romance as She 
Grew Older': From Conduct Book Propriety to Romance in 
Persuasion." Persuasions 15 (1993):216-25. 

Shefrin, Jill. Neatly Dissected: for the Instruction of Young 
ladies and Gentlemen In the Knowledge of Geography. John 
Spilsbury and Early Dissected Puzzles. Los Angeles, Cotsen 
Occasional Press, 1999. 

— . "A Note on the Harlequinade Mother Shipton. " Mother 
Shipton. Toronto, Friends of the Osborne Collection, 1980. 

Speaight, George. "Harlequinade Turn-Ups." Theatre 
Notebook 45.2 (1991): 70-84. 

This paper was originally presented at the British Society 
for Eighteenth Century Studies in January, 2004. 

The books shown in this article are typical 18' h century 
Harlequinades. 

Questions and Answers 

Q. I recently found a reference to a pop-up book I have not 
seen and would like to verify the description. The 5 th edition 
(Random House, 1989) of Whitney's Star Finder: A Field 
Guide to the Heavens by Charles A. Whitney is said to 
include "a paper locater wheel and a pop-up sky." If you 
have a copy of the 5' h edition of this book, I'd like to receive 
a description of the "pop-up sky." 

Ann Montanaro 

Q. How are pop-up books made? This online question is 
repeatedly posed by students from all over the world. Several 
packaging companies and paper engineers have created web 
pages that answer students' questions. 

A. Hawcock Books has a very descriptive six-page 
document online that describes how a pop-up book is 
produced. See: 
http://www.hawcockbooks.co.uk/howitsdone.pdf. 

Q . In a brief note about paper engineer Vic Duppa- Whyte 
there was a reference to an article about him. The British 
Library holds the newspaper but I have been unable to obtain 
a copy of the article through interlibrary loan. I would 
appreciate receiving a copy if anyone has it. The article is 
"The Man Who Put the Pop Back into Children's Books," 
written by John Lynott. It appeared in The Acton Gazette on 
January 3, 1986, page 3. 

Ann Montanaro 



10 



The Day the Movable Books Did NOT MOVE! 

Lorraine Conway 

On a recent trip to the Czech Republic and Poland, 
although most of the excursions had been pre-planned 
for our group, I was able to take a "side trip" to a book 
store in Prague. Fortuitously, prior to leaving I had 
found info on the web for ANAGRAM, specifically that 
it was a store for books exclusively in English. 

Last Fall an article in Movable Stationery 
highlighted Lucie Siefertova who has created several 
movable books related to the history of Prague. Through 
the efforts of a relative, I received a copy of Prague 
Castle in Czech for Christmas. I hoped to purchase any 
of her other books, preferably in English. 

Much to my delight, Anagram was located in the 
"old town" and a phone call verified that they had all of 
Lucie's books in English. I took a cab and after my 
successful purchase, planned to join the tour group for 
dinner. 

On the way to dinner, I passed the tourist bureau and 
was able to get info on the scheduled Laterna Magika 
theater production of Casanova. Prague is world- 
renowned for the unusual kaleidoscopic film and live 
dance performances at this theater. Six different 
programs are offered in rotation over a period of six 
weeks. 1 enticed three travel companions to join me at 
Laterna Magika for our last evening in Prague. I 
mention this in case some of you will be in Prague in 
the near future. Laterna Magika is a real highlight! 
With Lucie's books and the Laterna Magika experience, 
up to this point the trip had been a total success! 

Fast forward to Wroclaw, Poland and a rather 
unpleasant experience two days before we returned 
home. Somewhere around 5:30 a.m., a silent intruder 
entered the hotel room I was sharing with "Mama" an 
incredible 90 year-old lady from South Carolina. She 
woke up at 6:00, and noticed someone rummaging in 
her suitcase. When "Mama" called out, the thief 
crawled out of the room. The lights went on and we 
panicked when we realized our purses and suitcases 
were open, the contents scattered all over the room.. It 
was a shock! We had slept right through! 

All of the carved Polish wooden boxes and some 
Bohemian crystal which I had purchased as gifts were 
gone. My American money (not a lot since we were near 
the end of the trip) and "Mama's" jewelry and 
medications were also gone. No passports were taken 
and apparently either the thief did not find Lucie's 
books or any other books I purchased worth stealing or 
had not yet had time to grab them. NO ONE wanted the 
books I had purchased! Hence the title of this article. So 
forget buying perfume, crystal etc; buy movable books 



and if you are as lucky as I was, they will NOT MOVE 
unless you want them to! 

Note: After the "crime" scene was investigated and a trip 
to the police station we were on our way. A call later in 
the day revealed that all the medication was returned in a 
cab to the hotel but as we were now two hours away, that 
was useless. I gave "Mama" a copy of Jan Pienkowski's 
The First Noel to share with her great-grandchildren. 

Since all of my grandparents had come from either 
Czechoslovakia or Poland, there was a sense of being 
where they might have been. Krakow was magnificent. If 
you ever are traveling there, be sure to read the children's 
book The Trumpeter of Krakow which received the 
Newbery Award as the best children's book in 1928. 



Catalogs Received 

Aleph-Bet Books. Catalogue 81. 85 Old Mill River Rd. 
Pound Ridge, NY 10576. Phone: 914-764-7410. Fax: 914- 
764-1356. helen@alephbet.com. http://www.alephbet.com 

Cattermole 20 ,h Century Children's Books. Catalog 41. 
9880 Fairmount Road, Newbury, Ohio 44065. 440-338- 
3253. http://www.cattermole.com. 

Currington Rare Books. Curringtonrarebooks.com. 
Offering 30% off pop-up books listed online. 

Jo Ann Reisler, Ltd. Catalogue 74. 360 Glyndon St., NE, 
Vienna VA. Phone:703-938-2967. Fax: 703-938-9057. 
email@joannereisler.com. www.joannreisler.com 

Sotheran's of Sackville Street. Children's and Illustrated 
Books. Henry Sotheran Limited. 2 Sackville St. Piccadilly, 
London W1X 2DP. Phone: 0171 439 6151. Fax: 0171 434 
2019. http://www.sotherans.co.uk 

Stella Books. Pop-up List. 

www. stellabooks.com/catalogues/Pop-Up~2 1 4.htm 



New Publications 



The following titles have been identified from pre- 
publication catalogs, Internet sources, book store hunting, 
and other advertising. All titles include pop-ups unless 
otherwise noted and are listed for information only - not 
as recommendations for purchase. 



The Big Match!: A Pop-up Book with Soccer Game to 
Play. 7 pages. £14.99. Tango Books. 1-85707-658-3. 



11 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




Castle: Medieval Days 
& Knights! By Kyle 
Olmon. July. Sabuda 
& Reinhart Present, an 
imprint of Scholastic 
Books. $19.99. 
0-439-0543240-X. 



Creature Colors: A 
Pop-up Color Book. 
Backpack Books. S5.98. 
6!4 x 9'/ 2 ". 
0-7607-6845-5. 



Firefighter. Interactive 
Heroes. By Ken 
Wilson-Max. £5.99. 
Chrysalis Children's 
Books. 

Also: Traffic Police. 
1-844-58559-X. 





by Jonathan Emmett 



Creepy Crawly Colors: A 
Pop-up Book. 14 pages. 
$10.95. June. Little Simon. 
1-4169-0707-6. 





Monster Mix-Up. 12 
pages. Intervisual Books. 
$11.95. 1-581-17451-9. 



mM) 



t~^sk 



apes 




Up all Night Counting: 
A Pop-up Book. 14 
pages. $10.95. June. 
Little Simon. 
1-4169-0706-8. 





3 9088 01629 315 



My Great Aunt Phibian. 
[One pop-up] Reader's 
Digest. $12.99. 
0-7944-0506-1. 




Safari Shapes: A Pop-up 
Shape Book. Backpack 
Books. $5.98. 6'/ 2 x 9'/ 2 ". 
0-7607-6864-1. 




12